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Amplifiers

Learn About Amplifiers & LO Drivers

ADM series amplifiers are GaAs pHEMT distributed amplifiers that are designed and optimized to drive Marki Microwave mixers. A combination of high output power and efficient power dissipation optimize the ADM series amplifiers for driving H, I, and S diode Marki mixers and multipliers. Strong odd (3rd and 5th) output harmonics make the ADM-0026-5929SM amplifier an ideal choice as a square wave LO generator for T3 style mixers. For general purpose, small signal, applications that do not require strong square wave generation, the ADM-0126-5838SM and ADM-0026-5931SM can be used. All ADM amplifiers are available as bare die and industry standard 3x3mm or 4x4mm QFN packages. Multi-chip connectorized modules are also available.

Amplifier Features

• LO Drivers for mixers
• Fast <10ps rise times
• Strong 3rd and 5th harmonic generation
• Multiple packaging operations available
• RoHS Compliant MMICs and MMIC based modules

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LO Driver Surface Mounts

Surface mount LO driver amplifiers are designed to function as the final output stage of the LO signal chain. Marki LO amplifiers provide a high power, fast rise time signal for driving a mixer’s LO port. Surface mount LO driver amplifiers simplify system design by providing sufficient LO power to achieve the desired mixer spurious suppression, IP3, and other critical non-linear specifications. All ADM series amplifiers are available in a standard QFN package with broadband die versions available upon request.
LO Driver Modules

Connectorized LO driver amplifier modules are designed to function as the final output stage of the LO signal chain in a coax connectorized package built ready for installation. Marki LO amplifiers provide a high power, fast rise time signal for driving a mixer’s LO port while providing a good impedance match. Connectorized LO driver amplifiers provide power up through millimeter wave frequencies and are unconditionally stable. LO driver amplifiers provide sufficient LO power to achieve the desired mixer spurious suppression, IP3, and other critical non-linear specifications. All ADM series modules are built using wirebonded amplifier onto a PWB with the bare die versions being available upon request.
Legacy

Legacy Marki amplifiers are not recommended for new design. Users should consult the ADM series amplifiers for the latest factory recommended LO driver amplifiers for use with Marki Microwave mixers. Consult factory for application support in transitioning from old to new system designs.
Application Support

Power Handling

Maximum power handling is a common concern of our customers. Nothing is worse than plugging in an expensive device only for it to be immediately destroyed. Understanding power handling is [...]

Marki Microwave Amplifier Operation Guide

We sell a large product line of packaged amplifiers, primarily for use as LO buffer amplifiers, but that can also be used as general purpose gain blocks. While we don’t design the actual [...]

Baluns

Learn About Baluns & Inverters

Marki specializes in broadband, microwave frequency baluns and balun transformers for test and measurement and high speed analog to digital interface applications. Using proprietary design and fabrication techniques, Marki creates the highest performance baluns in the world.

Baluns Features

• Extremely low amplitude and phase balance
• Typical >25dB Common Mode Rejection
• 1:1 and 1:2 Impedance Ratios Available
• Multi-Octave bandwidths to 67 GHz
• Small form factor SMT packages

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Test & Measurement

Test and measurement baluns are connectorized modules that can be used in laboratory settings or built into temporary or permanent test sets. They are hand tuned to offer superior amplitude balance, phase balance, and common mode rejection ratio up to 67 GHz. Important specifications to consider when selecting a test and measurement balun include frequency coverage, excess insertion loss, and isolation between balanced ports. Data applications require a balun with frequency coverage to low frequencies, typically below 1 MHz. For converting a differential signal to a single ended signal it is best to use a balun with isolation, which is functionally equivalent to a 180˚ hybrid. For more information on how these specifications can affect system performance, consult our balun primer and tech notes.
Surface Mount

Our surface mount baluns offer the best phase balance, amplitude balance, and common mode rejection over the widest bandwidths of any product commercially available. These surface mount baluns are commonly used to interface to analog to digital converters, digital to analog converters, and used in differential cable test sets.
Unlike competing transformer baluns, our broadband baluns use a unique architecture combined with sophisticated and proprietary assembly techniques to provide the highest performance balun on the market. For applications above 1 GHz Marki also offers lower cost, capacitively-coupled baluns.
Inverters

Pulse inverters are available as connectorized modules up to 65 GHz operation. These laboratory devices use both magnetic and capacitive coupling to create an inverted or negative version of a voltage signal. In the frequency domain it introduces a broadband 180˚ phase shift to the input signal, while maintaining a flat group delay to ensure signal integrity.
Application Support

A Tutorial on Baluns, Balun Transformers, Magic-Ts, and 180° Hybrids

By: Doug Jorgesen and Christopher Marki

Power Handling

Maximum power handling is a common concern of our customers. Nothing is worse than plugging in an expensive device only for it to be immediately destroyed. Understanding power handling is [...]

The Solution to Back to Back Baluns

As detailed in this blog post, there was a previously unaddressed problem with using baluns back to back in a test setup, with a VNA for example. The problem was that the baluns did not have [...]

Balun Eye Diagrams at 14 Gb/s

I got an email asking if our baluns would work to 16 Gb/s data signals, so I tested them with the fastest data signal we can generate here before our BERT starts to go loopy. Here are the [...]

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Bias Tees

Learn About Bias Tees and DC Blocks

A bias tee offers the ability to apply or detect a DC voltage on a high frequency signal. The important specifications of a bias tee include insertion loss, insertion loss flatness, group delay flatness, and return loss between the high frequency and common ports, isolation between the DC port and high frequency port, and power handling for both the DC port and high frequency port. For digital data applications it is important to select a bias tee with sufficient bandwidth on both the low and high frequencies and flat group delay across the band to prevent signal degradation.
A DC block is half of a bias tee: it blocks the DC on an RF signal line, but does not provide the option to add a new DC bias to it. Use of a bias tee with an unconnected DC port is functionally equivalent to a DC block at RF frequencies. Important specifications are insertion loss and return loss, especially at high frequency.

Bias Tees Features

• Resonance free performance to 65GHz
• Low frequency, down to 4KHz, operation
• Ultra-Small 0.036in2 (23.2mm2) footprints

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Surface Mount

Marki surface mount bias tees are built on a thin softboard substrate to enable high frequency operation. Marki produces high Q, small form factor, wire wound coils specifically for use in our surface mount bias tees. By using these internally produced coils and precisely controlling the assembly we can offer a smaller, higher frequency, resonance free bias tee than what is possible using commercially available wire wound coils.  Most models (the 14, 24, and 34 GHz units) offer the option of using an external coil to extend the low end to the kHz range. Bypass capacitors can be added near the DC input port by the user to filter noise on the DC line. The 30 GHz model includes a bypass capacitor on the DC line that prevents low frequency extension, but provides noise filtering from the DC line.
Modules

As with surface mount bias tees, connectorized bias tee modules are built using Marki’s proprietary wirewound coil technology. Precision assembly allows for ultra-broadband resonance free operation in two different models. The BT models offer the lowest frequency coverage down to 4 kHz using large integrated inductors. The more compact BTN models offer the same high frequency coverage without the large integrated inductors. These models are all capable of 500 mA of DC current, up to 30V of DC bias voltage, and 1 watt of RF power.
High Power

There are two major limitations on the DC power handling of a bias tee: the voltage rating of the DC blocking capacitor and the current handling capability of the wirewound coil. Marki high power bias tees use high voltage blocking capacitors, which are more prone to resonance due to parasitic inductance. In addition to DC voltage, these capacitors allow high RF power of 10 watts for lower frequency and 5 watts for higher frequency bias tees. These bias tees also use proprietary wirewound coils with thick wire allowing for higher current capability.
Application Support

Power Handling

Maximum power handling is a common concern of our customers. Nothing is worse than plugging in an expensive device only for it to be immediately destroyed. Understanding power handling is [...]

Couplers

Learn About Directional Couplers

A coupler allows the user to sample the power on a transmission line with a given coupling factor. Crucially, a directional coupler will (ideally) sample power in only one direction, discriminating between forward and backward traveling signals. The selectivity with which the coupler can select between forward and reverse waves is called the directivity, and it is usually the most important factor in selecting a directional coupler. Other important factors include return loss, coupling value, coupling flatness, insertion loss, and power handling. For in-depth information regarding all couplers, please refer to the Microwave Power Dividers and Couplers Primer and the Directivity and VSWR Measurements App Note .

Couplers Features

• High Directivity
• Multiple, Flat Coupling Values available
• Low Insertion Loss
• Directional, Bidirectional, and Dual Directional Designs

High Directivity Bridge

These couplers offer the highest possible directivity across a very broad bandwidth, including to low frequencies (down to kHz). Unlike stripline couplers that are based on quarter wave capacitively coupled structures, bridge couplers are based on Marki’s industry leading magnetically coupled baluns. They are the best choice for return loss measurements due to their high directivity. Their higher insertion loss and lower power handling make them a poor choice for amplifier and load-pull testing.
Stripline Directional

Marki uses proprietary design techniques and software to create the highest performance directional couplers in the world. These couplers are based on industry standard triplate stripline construction techniques, making them suitable for high reliability applications. Each coupler is bidirectional, meaning that it can be used in both the forward and reverse direction when the coupled ports are terminated with 50Ω circuits, either loads or detectors. Some models come with one port terminated in a 50Ω load, while most have both coupled ports available. They have been tested to 50 watts of input power (see this tech note) and are suitable for load-pull testing, output power monitoring, and other broadband applications. Custom designs are possible for high volume requirements.
Low Loss High Power

Low insertion loss couplers are perfect for load-pull and other test applications that are sensitive to loss or use high powers. Marki uses two types of construction for low loss couplers. High power stripline couplers use wider traces and thicker circuit boards than our standard stripline directional couplers, but their multisection design provides low loss but with a flat coupling value across the band. Airline directional couplers, as the name implies, use air as the dielectric material. This provides the lowest possible loss and correspondingly highest power handling, but with a coupling factor that varies across the band. These couplers are ideal for low loss or high power applications where the coupling factor can be calibrated out. Power handling of both types of couplers is limited by the connectors, which are available in N, APC-7, SMA, 2.92, and 2.4mm for different models of coupler.
Dual Directional

While our stripline directional couplers are bidirectional and can measure power in both directions with 50Ω detectors, there are some applications that use non-50Ω power detectors. For these applications a dual directional coupler allows the user to measure power in both the forward and reverse directions without degradation in directivity due to impedance mismatch presented by the power detector. A dual directional coupler is two bidirectional couplers fabricated back to back, making each coupler insensitive to the non-50Ω coupled port termination.
Pick-Off Tees

A pick off tee is a resistive circuit that provides non-directional coupling of microwave signals. Due to reflections, a directional coupler is preferred for most applications. In an extremely well matched system a Marki pick off tee can provide extremely broadband signal monitoring in a very small package.
Application Support

Power Handling

Maximum power handling is a common concern of our customers. Nothing is worse than plugging in an expensive device only for it to be immediately destroyed. Understanding power handling is [...]

Top 7 Ways to Create a Quadrature (90˚) Phase Shift

We’ve talked a lot about IQ mixers in the last few posts, about their theoretical underpinnings and applications as a phase detector and phase modulator. In upcoming posts we will discuss [...]

Equalizers

Learn About Equalizers

An RF/Microwave equalizer is a type of filter designed to introduce frequency dependent losses opposite to those naturally present in a system. When inserted into a system with a typical frequency characteristic, it equalizes the broadband insertion loss of the system. Marki equalizers are specific types of high pass filters designed to compensate for typical low pass system characteristics. Important characteristics include the insertion loss at DC, frequency at which the insertion loss is a minimum, return loss, group delay, and rise/fall time. Marki equalizers are suitable for both RF/Microwave and high speed digital data applications. Typical applications include compensation of PCB and cable loss and leveling of gain block amplifiers.

Equalizers Features

• Positive gain slope equalization
• Various low frequency attenuation options
• Multiple and Custom slope characteristics
• Flat group delay – suitable for data application

Surface Mounts
 Marki surface mount equalizers package our chip equalizers into a QFN package. They are suitable for general purpose equalization of circuit traces, amplifiers, and other components up to 30 GHz.
Chips/Modules

Marki equalizer modules provide broadband equalization with return loss, low minimum insertion loss, and flat group delay. In addition, the MEQ products are available as a small form factor wire bondable chip, economically priced for high volume applications.
Application Support

Coming soon…

 

Filters

Learn About Filters

RF/Microwave filters are a fundamental component of signal processing. They pass signals within their passband and reject signals outside the passband. Marki filters are reflective, meaning that they reflect signals outside of the passband. Important specifications include rejection (the measure of how well undesired signals are rejected), steepness of the rejection skirts, insertion loss, and return loss. Typically size is also important for filters, as there is a fundamental tradeoff between rejection and filter size, as both are determined by the ‘order’ of the filter. A higher order filter has more rejection, but also requires more space and has a higher insertion loss. Marki filters offer moderate rejection and rejection skirts, but across very broad bandwidths.

Filters Features

• High order maximally flat design
• Low passband insertion loss
• Reflective Stopband
• Broad, high frequency pass and stopbands

Lowpass

A lowpass filter has a direct connection from input to output, passing DC and all frequencies below some specified 3 dB cutoff frequency. After the 3 dB cutoff frequency the insertion loss increases dramatically and the filter (ideally) rejects all frequencies above this point. Physically realizable filters have ‘re-entry’ modes the limit the high frequency capability of the filter. At some higher frequency the rejection of the filter degrades, and higher frequency signals can appear at the output of the filter. Marki lowpass filters are microstrip filters that are CAD optimized and built on a low loss substrate, offering very broad rejection bands before re-entrant modes appear.
Highpass

A highpass filter will reject signals with frequency below their designed frequency of operation, and pass all signals above this. Important specifications include rejection of low frequency signals, insertion loss, return loss, and insertion loss flatness above the 3 dB cutoff frequency. Marki highpass filters are based on a cavity design that offers operation to very high frequencies with broad, resonance free passband and stopbands.
Bandpass

A bandpass filter is capacitively coupled between the two ports, offering rejection of both low frequency and high frequency signals and selecting a particular band referred to as the ‘passband’. Important specifications include the center frequency, passband (expressed either as start and stop frequencies or as a percentage of the center frequency), rejection and steepness of rejection, and width of the rejection bands. All bandpass filters will have re-entrant modes at higher frequencies, so the width of the high frequency rejection band is an important consideration. Marki bandpass filters are microstrip filters that are CAD optimized and built on a low loss substrate, offering extremely broad rejection bands.
Diplexers

Diplexers Features

• High Isolation
• Reentrance and Resonance Free Passbands
• Reflectionless termination of unwanted harmonics
• Broad, high frequency passbands

A diplexer is a three port device that combines or divides a common signal according to frequency, into low pass and high pass ports. Unlike a duplexer, which combines two bandpass filters, diplexers are very broadband. Important specifications include frequency coverage, out of band rejection for the high/low pass filters, isolation between the high/low pass filters, insertion loss, and return loss. Marki diplexers offer extremely broad, resonance free passbands. Diplexers can be used as low loss combiners or dividers for signals with different frequencies or as reflectionless filters (with one port terminated) at the output of mixers and other nonlinear devices with many harmonics.
Application Support

Coming soon…

 

High Speed Data

Learn About High Speed Data

Marki is uniquely qualified to merge both the frequency and the time domain expertise required to create components that offer high quality eye diagrams across broad frequencies.

High Speed Data Features

• Suitable for building Datacom Test Equipment
• Affordable alternative to prebuild Bit Error Ratio Test Sets

Multiplexer

The MUX-56 is the high speed ADSANTEC 5153 SiGe 2:1 multiplexer (MUX) chip in a connectorized module. The multiplexer is a high speed, high isolation 2:1 serializer that has DC to 56 Gb/s output data rate. The device can also be operated as a DC to 56 Gb/s (28 GHz) high isolation digital signal selector switch. The MUX-56 can be operated single ended or differentially. The MUX-56 is suitable for laboratory testing and use in test equipment.
Demultiplexer

The DMX-64 is the high speed ADSANTEC 5190B SiGe 1 :2 demultiplexer (DEMUX) chip in a connectorized module. The demultiplexer is a broadband 1:2 deserializer that converts a DC to 64 Gb/s input signal into two half rate output signals using a half rate clock. The DMX-64 can be operated single ended or differentially. The DMX-64 is suitable for laboratory testing and use in test equipment.
Application Support

Coming soon…

 

Hybrids

Learn About Hybrids

A hybrid is a coupler that behaves as a power divider, providing an equal power split from input to output while creating a broadband phase shift between the two outputs. Important metrics include amplitude balance, phase balance, and isolation between output ports.

Hybrids Features

• Flat, broadband phase shift
• 3dB Coupling with excellent amplitude balance
• Broadband 50Ω Match

90° Modules

Quadrature Hybrids (90° Hybrid General Description)
A quadrature or 90˚ hybrid is a special type of power splitter that creates a 90˚ (π/2 radians) phase shift between the two outputs. This phase shift is both broadband (unlike a delay line) and relative (between the outputs). Marki quadrature hybrids are created by building a backwards wave coupler (similar to our stripline directional couplers) with a 3 dB coupling value, creating equal power outputs (for other methods and their merits or demerits, see this tech note). Important figures of merit include amplitude and phase balance and isolation between the outputs. Among the many applications of quadrature hybrids are the quadrature signal generation necessary for IQ and image reject mixers and balanced amplifiers.
Application Support

Power Handling

Maximum power handling is a common concern of our customers. Nothing is worse than plugging in an expensive device only for it to be immediately destroyed. Understanding power handling is [...]

IQ Mixers

Learn About IQ Mixers

An IQ mixer consists of two mixers where the RF (or LO) ports are connected with an inphase power divider and the LO (or RF) ports are connected with a quadrature hybrid. The two IF ports, I for the in-phase component and Q for the 90° out-of-phase component, are available to the user. This combination allows the in-phase and quadrature components of the output signal to be modulated independently with each IF port. If an IQ mixer is used to transmit data, the in phase and quadrature components can be selected at the receiver by using another IQ mixer.
Image Reject (IR) and Single Sideband (SSB) Mixers

If the IF ports of an IQ mixer are combined with another quadrature hybrid, the result is a three-port device alternately called an image reject mixer (when used as a downconverter) or single sideband mixer(when used as an upconverter). This structure will reject one sideband when used as a downconverter and will preferentially produce one sideband when used as an upconverter. Selection of either the lower sideband or the upper sideband depends on the orientation of the IF quadrature hybrid relative to the I and Q ports. For extensive analysis of IQ, IR, and SSB mixers see the mixer basics primer and our tech note series on this topic.
Application Support

Table of IF Hybrids

For many years Marki Microwave has sold Image Reject and Single Sideband Mixers to both laboratory/research customers and industrial/military customers. Due to the advancement of digital to [...]

The Why and When of IQ Mixers for Beginners

Sometimes you need a mixer; sometimes you need an IQ mixer. How do you know which one to buy? Before answering this question, I recommend reading the Mixer Basics Primer to get a good [...]

Top 7 Ways to Create a Quadrature (90˚) Phase Shift

We’ve talked a lot about IQ mixers in the last few posts, about their theoretical underpinnings and applications as a phase detector and phase modulator. In upcoming posts we will discuss [...]

All About Mixers as Phase Modulators

In our last post we showed the physical basis for how mixers are used as phase detectors, concluding by showing that IQ mixers make ideal phase detectors due to their ability to unambiguously [...]

All About Mixers as Phase Detectors

Some of the most common questions we receive here are about using mixers as phase detectors. We previously discussed this topic in the post, “DC Offset and Mixers as Microwave Phase Detectors”. [...]

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Mixers

Learn About Mixers

Microwave mixers translate the frequency of electromagnetic signals. The mixer is the limiting factor in the dynamic range of many systems, particularly receivers. The dynamic range can be limited by the conversion loss, multitone intermodulation products, single tone spurious products, and isolations of the mixer. Marki has a continuing legacy of creating the highest performance RF and microwave mixers in the world. Mixers are differentiated by their circuit topology (single/double/triple balanced, T3, etc), device (Schottky diode, MESFET, etc.), and their form factor (module, surface mount, chip). Marki uses many different circuit topologies, including several proprietary circuits, with Schottky diodes to make mixers in hybrid module, Microlithic® chip and surface mount, and MMIC chip and surface mount form factors.

Mixers Features

• Multioctave RF/LO frequency coverage
• High IF frequency coverage
• World class single and multitone spurious suppression
• Low, flat conversion loss
• Excellent port to port isolations
• Available in surface mount, module, and bare die

MMIC/Microlithic Surface Mounts

Our surface mount MMIC mixers package our optimized chips into industry standard ceramic QFN packages. These affordable packages offer good electrical performance to 30 GHz while also providing proven high reliability. Surface mount Microlithic® mixers are based on chip designs, but use integrated surface mount transitions that operate up to 32 GHz. Eval modules of both MMIC and Microlithic® surface mount mixers are available.
MMIC/Microlithic Chips/Modules

These mixers offer the best tradeoff between performance, size, repeatability, cost, and lead time/availability, particularly for higher volume applications. Marki develops MMIC and Microlithic® mixers using full electromagnetic and circuit based non-linear optimization. Our MMIC mixers are fabricated with precise tolerance on a GaAs substrate with high speed Schottky diodes. Marki MMIC mixers offer superior non-li+A1:C7ear performance and isolations compared to both competing MMIC mixers and hybrid mixers. Microlithic® mixers offer low, repeatable conversion loss performance. MMIC/Microlithic® chip/module mixers are designed as a small form factor chip. This chip is also packaged into a module that is suitable for high performance laboratory use or as an eval module with equivalent performance as the chip.
T3

The T3 mixer is the most advanced mixer circuit available in the world. In addition to broadband overlapping LO, RF, and IF bands, it has the potential for extremely high linearity. T3 mixers are built using both hybrid constructions that create ultra-broadband coverage on all three ports (RF,LO, and IF) and in MMIC form as the MT3, which offers the scalability of a MMIC with the linear performance of the T3.
Since it is a true-commutating mixer, it will provide increasing two-tone intermodulation suppression, input 1-dB compression, and spurious suppression (for most spurs) as the rise time of the LO signal is increased by either increasing sine wave LO drive or using a square wave LO. Much more detailed information about the T3 can be found in our T3 Tutorial.
IQ/IR/SSB

IQ Mixers
An IQ mixer consists of two mixers where the RF (or LO) ports are connected with an inphase power divider and the LO (or RF) ports are connected with a quadrature hybrid. The two IF ports, I for the in-phase component and Q for the 90° out-of-phase component, are available to the user. This combination allows the in-phase and quadrature components of the output signal to be modulated independently with each IF port. If an IQ mixer is used to transmit data, the in phase and quadrature components can be selected at the receiver by using another IQ mixer.
Image Reject (IR) and Single Sideband (SSB) Mixers
If the IF ports of an IQ mixer are combined with another quadrature hybrid, the result is a three-port device alternately called an image reject mixer (when used as a downconverter) or single sideband mixer(when used as an upconverter). This structure will reject one sideband when used as a downconverter and will preferentially produce one sideband when used as an upconverter. Selection of either the lower sideband or the upper sideband depends on the orientation of the IF quadrature hybrid relative to the I and Q ports. For extensive analysis of IQ, IR, and SSB mixers see the mixer basics primer and our tech note series on this topic.
Legacy

Marki’s legendary hybrid mixers offer low conversion loss, isolation, and low LO drive capability across incredible bandwidths. While they have been surpassed in nonlinearity performance by T3, MMIC, and Microlithic® designs in smaller form factor chip and surface mount packages, legacy mixer connectorized modules are still a sound choice for legacy systems and laboratory use.
M1 double balanced mixers have excellent isolations and conversion loss to 26 GHz. M2 triple balanced mixers offer ultrabroadband overlapping frequency coverage on all three ports. M4 diplexed IF mixers have very broadband RF/LO frequency coverage with low IF frequencies, excellent for test and measurement applications.  M8 mixers offer high isolations and very low conversion loss using a specially balanced technique. M9 millimeter wave double balanced mixers offer high frequency RF/LO coverage to 65 GHz with high IF frequencies.
Application Support

Power Handling

Maximum power handling is a common concern of our customers. Nothing is worse than plugging in an expensive device only for it to be immediately destroyed. Understanding power handling is [...]

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Multipliers

Learn About Multipliers

An RF/Microwave multiplier is a nonlinear device that efficiently produces output signals at integer multiples of the input signal frequency. The input frequency is called the ‘fundamental’ frequency, and the output signals at multiples of the fundamental are called the ‘harmonics’. Important metrics of a multiplier include the conversion loss between the fundamental and the desired harmonic, suppression of undesired harmonics, power input required at the input, power generated at the output, and additive phase noise of the multiplier. Marki multipliers include balanced doublers, amplifier multipliers, and nonlinear transmission lines.

Multipliers Features

• x2 MMIC/Microlithic multipliers offer high 1F and 3F suppressions, relaxing filtering requirements
• Moderate input power requirements for typical operation; high power variants with higher suppressions available
• x2 and x4 modules with built-in amplifiers offer a convenient off-the-shelf multiplication stage with gain and low power input requirement
• NLTLs offer low residual phase noise multiplication to alternative multiplication stage designs

Passive x2

These doublers offer extremely high suppressions, small size, repeatability, scalable cost, and excellent lead time/availability for higher volume applications. Marki develops MMIC and Microlithic® doublers using full electromagnetic and circuit based non-linear optimization. Our MMIC doublers are fabricated with precise tolerance on a GaAs substrate with high speed Schottky diodes. MMIC/Microlithic® chip/module doublers are designed as a small form factor chip. This chip is also packaged into a module that is suitable for high performance laboratory use or as an eval module with equivalent performance as the chip.
Our surface mount MMIC doublers package our optimized chips into industry standard ceramic QFN packages. These affordable packages offer good electrical performance to 30 GHz while also providing proven high reliability. Surface mount Microlithic® doublers are based on chip designs, but use integrated surface mount transitions that operate up to 32 GHz. Eval modules of both MMIC and Microlithic® surface mount doublers are available.
Active x2/x4

Our active doublers and quadruplers integrate amplifiers with our doublers, creating an integrated LO multiplier chain in a single module. They are a convenient alternative to expensive synthesizers for use in the laboratory or bolt together systems.
NLTLs

A nonlinear transmission line is a transmission line with nonlinear elements on it (such as Schottky diodes) that create higher harmonics of the signal as it propagates down the line. This process efficiently creates all harmonics of the fundamental signal, leading to the term ‘comb generator’ for the appearance of all the harmonics on a spectrum analyzer. NLTLs accomplish this with very low additive phase noise relative to other devices. NLTLs are an excellent alternative to step recovery diodes.
Legacy

Marki’s legendary hybrid doublers offer low conversion loss, high suppressions, and low drive capability across incredible bandwidths. While they have been surpassed in suppression performance by MMIC and Microlithic® designs in smaller form factor chip and surface mount packages, legacy mixer connectorized modules are still a sound choice for legacy systems and laboratory use.
Application Support

Marki Microwave Multipliers

There are two ways to create high frequency (low phase noise) tones: use a high frequency oscillator to directly synthesize (probably optically) or use a crystal to create a low phase noise [...]

Power Dividers & Combiners

Learn About Power Dividers & Combiners

As the name implies, an RF/microwave power divider will split an input signal into two equal and identical (i.e. in-phase) signals. It can also be used as a power combiner, where the common port is the output and the two equal power ports are used as the inputs. Important specifications when used as a power divider include the insertion loss, amplitude and phase balance between the arms, and return losses. For power combining of uncorrelated signals, the most important specification is the isolation, which is the insertion loss from one equal power port to the other.

Power Dividers Features

• Power dividers can be used as combiners or splitters
• Wilkinson and High isolation power dividers offer high isolation, blocking signal cross-talk between output ports
• Low insertion and return loss
• Wilkinson and resistive power dividers offer excellent (<0.5dB) amplitude and (<3°) phase balance

High Directivity

These circuits are based on a bridge coupler using one of Marki’s world class baluns, providing the highest possible isolation across a massive broadband covering from kHz to GHz frequencies. These are ideal for power combining uncorrelated signals. Their higher insertion loss and uncontrolled phase balance makes them unsuitable for power dividing applications, typically.
Wilkinson 1:2

A Wilkinson power divider offers the lowest insertion loss (ideally 3 dB, or just the splitting loss) from DC to very high bandwidths. It will also offer isolation across a narrower bandwidth. Marki Wilkinson power dividers offer isolation across extremely broad bandwidth ratios, up to 65:1. As discussed in our tech notes, the required specifications and capabilities for a Wilkinson for power handling and isolation can vary dramatically depending on the application. See our tech notes or contact Marki for further information or to discuss your specific application.
Wilkinson 1:3

Marki offers unique 1:3 Wilkinson power dividers based on advanced circuit analysis techniques. While three way Wilkinson power dividers are theoretically easy to design, they are very difficult to realize due to the impedances necessary. Extensive experimentation and analysis have allowed Marki to realize 1:3 Wilkinsons across broad bandwidths.
Wilkinson 1:4

Marki 1:4 Wilkinsons are realized as a cascade of two 1:2 Wilkinson power dividers. By integrating them together into a single package, Marki is able to optimize the interconnects for minimum insertion and return loss.
Resistive 1:2

A resistive power divider is the smallest, simplest, and most broadband type of power divider. However, due to the high insertion loss and lack of isolation it is rarely the best choice for a given application over a Wilkinson power divider. See our tech notes or contact Marki for further information.
Application Support

Power Handling

Maximum power handling is a common concern of our customers. Nothing is worse than plugging in an expensive device only for it to be immediately destroyed. Understanding power handling is [...]

Yes, Wilkinson power dividers work for splitting data

The reactive power splitter is like Rodney Dangerfield: it gets no respect. Often people will resort to the primitive, high loss resistive power divider simply because a Wilkinson is specified [...]

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